Dating the origin of the orchidaceae

However, even Charles Darwin was well aware of orchid complexity and of the IC argument.The first book Darwin published after the On the Origin of Species (1859) was On the various contrivances by which British and foreign orchids are fertilised by insects (1862), also called Fertilization of Orchids. (2007) hypothesized orchids must have evolved at least 15-20 million years ago, during the Miocene, based on the finding of amber containing an extinct species of stingless bee, Proplebeia dominicana, that was carrying pollen of a previously unknown orchid taxon.This was a deliberate attack on the argument from design, and indeed on the notion of purpose in the world in general.Even the title was ironic, for Paley had said that there can be no contrivance without a contriver. He showed how complex and remarkably effective adaptations could in fact be built up by small steps through natural selection.

Knowing that sphinx moths (Sphingidae family) pollinate all of its relatives, Darwin predicted that there was a sphinx moth with an 18-inch long tongue that pollinates it.

He wrote: While a candidate moth, the Madagascan sphinx moth Xanthopan morganii, had been catalogued from the Congo region of Africa in the 1830s, the Congo is a bit far from Madagascar and Darwin had no knowledge of it.

though said subspecies was ultimately determined to be identical to the mainland species.

The latter makes no sense as a deduction from the creative action of an omniscient and omnipotent being.

Carried to its logical conclusion, the argument from design gives rise to the argument from incompetent design, hence to an argument for atheism.

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